Focus of the study: This study too tests the Output Hypothesis; however, it also looks at the interaction of pushed output with task type by comparing two kinds of tasks which are commonly used in the instructed SLA research. By using reconstruction and pictur...

Focus of the study: The goal of this paper is to compare the effectiveness of collaborative and individual output tasks and how these tasks effect learning of English phrasal verbs. More specifically this study aimed to find out whether reconstruction cloze ta...

Focus of the study: This study investigates the noticing component of Swain’s Output Hypothesis, which claim that while learners try to produce in their L2, they may notice gaps in their current linguistic knowledge, which then triggers their seeking input. Th...

This article attempts to apply a basic realist concept, security dilemma, to account for civil conflicts following the collapse of the USSR. Publication year of the article (1993) shows that Posen was trying to come up with a theory by which future ethnic conf...