Once tension between parties turn into an armed conflict, the international community expects formation of a peacekeeping force so that peace can be realized. This article empirically tests this assumption. Authors look at interstate and intrastate wars and wh...

Chapter 1: Civil War and Security Dilemma   A security dilemma is a situation in which each party’s efforts to increase its own security reduces the security of the others. This situation occurs when geographical, technological, or other strategic condit...

The concept of enduring rivalries addresses the problem of repeated conflict, in particular how the outcomes of crises and wars influence the likelihood of future conflict between the same set of states. This concept relates to the most prominent approaches to...

An enduring rivalry is a competition between states that involve six or more militarized disputes between the same two states around 1960 might be associated with the onset of new rivalries.   Political shocks were found to be a modest necessary conditio...

Rather than assume all actors are equally likely to engage in conflictual relations, a focus on rivalries permits analysts to focus in turn on the relatively small handful of actors who are the ones most likely to generate conflict vastly disproportionate to t...

Article offers an evolutionary model of how the relationship between two adversaries moves toward or away from rivalry over time, emphasizing the changing context of their relations and the influence of both past events and prospect of future interaction.  ...

Point:  Action-reaction in crisis is radically different in rivalries than in regular conflict.  Rivalry not only makes escalation and crises more likely, but also significantly interacts with more traditional predictors of conflict such as capability ratios, ...

Point:  There are some rivalries that do not enter war with each other. The article explains that if rivalries do not escalate to war then there are no territorial disputes between them. Rivals not in territorial disputes engage in war only by participating in...

Realists do share certain assumptions and are often treated as a group, but such a broad grouping obscures systematic divisions within realist theory. In this article the author argues that realism can be split into two competing branches by revealing latent d...

Khalidi’s central argument is that the Bush administration’s interventionist posture toward the Middle East is no mere post-9/11 aberration, but represents an especially bellicose expression of a longstanding campaign. Today’s enemy is terrorism; yesterday’s w...