Focus of the study: This study too tests the Output Hypothesis; however, it also looks at the interaction of pushed output with task type by comparing two kinds of tasks which are commonly used in the instructed SLA research. By using reconstruction and pictur...

Focus of the study: The goal of this paper is to empirically test the impact of noticing function of the output hypothesis on language learning by comparing differential effects of exposure to textually-enhanced input and pushed-output. In this regard, this pa...

Focus of the study: The goal of this paper is to compare the effectiveness of collaborative and individual output tasks and how these tasks effect learning of English phrasal verbs. More specifically this study aimed to find out whether reconstruction cloze ta...

Focus of the study: The motivation for this study lies in Swain’s output hypothesis, which claims that input alone is not sufficient for second language acquisition; hence, it should be supported with output as output pushes learners to go beyond semantic proc...

Focus of the study: This study investigates the noticing component of Swain’s Output Hypothesis, which claim that while learners try to produce in their L2, they may notice gaps in their current linguistic knowledge, which then triggers their seeking input. Th...

Focus of the study: The aim of the study is to test the Swain’s output hypothesis, particularly focusing on its noticing component.   Also, the study investigated the impact of pushed output on oral language development in L2. The study has  three reserch ques...

The War Ledger

A.F.K. Organski, Jacek Kugler 12.05.2017 05:13 International Relations Interstate conflict

Chapter 1 The core of one argument is that “if one nation gains significantly in power, its improved position relative to that of other nations frightens them and induces them to try to reverse this gain by war. Or, vice versa, a nation gaining on an advers...