Identifying Rivals and Rivalries in World Politics

Rather than assume all actors are equally likely to engage in conflictual relations, a focus on rivalries permits analysts to focus in turn on the relatively small handful of actors who are the ones most likely to generate conflict vastly disproportionate to their numbers.
For him, history matters, past relations and conflicts affect the future of rivalry.
For him threat perception of leaders or the elites is criterion. He looks at public speeches.
He argues that we cannot simply say rivals fight a lot by looking at Goertz and Diehl (1993) because they already define rivalry in a conflictual way. We should look at internal characteristics of a state.